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In post independence era the rampant growth of population resulted intomigration and over burden on urban setup. These migrant populations were bound to live in miserable conditions in urban slums. Lack of education and skills both

vocational and technical left migrants unemployed or under employed, even those who were employed got very low remunerations rendering them unable to make both ends meet. It was felt that adult education can decrease their dependency, increase their work efficiency and make them more productive in Socio-economic and technological terms.


Realising the need Ministry of Education and Culture, Govt. of India started, in 1967, scheme of Shramik Vidyapeeth - a program of Adult Education for workers in Urban and Industrial areas. These institutions were conceived as centres of educational and vocational training for adults and young people. The first Shramik Vidyapeeth was established at Worli, Mumbai. Gradually, the no. increased and by the end of 8th Five-year plan it rose to 58.


Mass campaigns for literacy in India have proved to be a strong tool of social mobilization for awakening and arousing people in all walks of life. Literacy is a significant instrument of empowerment for the poor, neo-literates and oppressed groups. The activities of Shramik Vidyapeeths got a diversification so as to provide academic and technical resource support to Zilla Sakchharta Samiti in taking up vocational and skill development programs, for neo-literates in both urban and rural areas and also to organize equivalency programs through open learning system.


The scheme of Shramik Vidyapeeth was rechristened as Jan Shikshan Sansthan (Institute of Peoples Education) and put under National Literacy Mission Authority; Min. of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India. No. of such institutions are increasing every year and has gone up to 274, by the end of 2011.


There is 12 Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS) in Bihar.


Jan Shikshan Sansthan Nalanda, run by Shantidoot, was established in Feb 2003.


Modus Operandi


  • Ministry of Human Resource Development, GOI (the scheme sponsoring agency) sanctions one JSS in one District of a State.
  • Each JSS, after sanction to an organization/institution (designated as the Parent Body), is registered as an independent entity.
  • Board of Management (BOM) of JSS functions independently from the Governing Board of the Parent Body.
  • The 12-member BOM of JSS consists of
    The Chairman (Chairman or representative of the Governing Board of the   Parent Body);
    Nominee of Joint Secretary (AE)/DG (NLM), M/oHRD, GOI;
State Director of Mass/Adult Education or his/her nominee;
    Representative from District Urban Development Agency or Rural  Development Agency or Deptt. dealing with Social Welfare Activities of the State Government and;
    Members representing Local Self Government Institutions, Zila Saksharta   Samiti, eminent persons from the field of Education / Women’s Welfare; employers’ association and prominent social workers.
    The Member-Secretary of the Board is the Director of the Sansthan.



  • The BOM
    is the policy making and supervisory body for the JSS.
constitutes such sub-committees as found necessary for proper management and functioning of the JSS.
    assesses the financial requirements of the Sansthan in keeping with its objectives and approve the annual action plan and the budget.
    periodically review and assess the programmes implemented by and through the Sansthan with a view to effect modifications and improvement.
    appoints staffs for conducting the affairs of the Sansthan, fix their remuneration (except Director) and define their duties and grant other allowances.
    ensure cooperation and support of voluntary agencies, welfare organizations, workers’ unions, industrial establishments, development agencies, Zila Saksharata Samitis, etc, for the programme.
    In general, takes measures as may be found necessary to promote the objects for which the Sansthan has been set up.



  • Tenure of BOM
The tenure of the Board of Management is three years, from the date the approval of Government of India is given.
    The Board is reconstituted after every three years. No member of the Board may be nominated for more than two terms, consecutive or otherwise.


  • The Executive Committee

The management and control of the affairs of the BOM is vested in the Executive Committee which consists of:-

    Vice Chairman of the JSS
    Two non-official members from the BOM
Representative of the Govt. of India
Representative of the State Directorate of Adult/Mass Education
Director Cum Member-Secretary

The Executive Committee is fully empowered to manage the Sansthan. It also has the authority to exercise such powers of the BOM as may be delegated to it.


The Approach

The overall approach of JSS is based on upgrading the areas of program of Non-formal, Adult and Continuing Education.
The main target group of the institution are illiterate, neo-literate or youths with rudimentary level of education from disadvantaged groups, in the age group of 15 to 35 years. SC/ST, Extremely Backward (EBC), BPL, Minorities, Disabled and females in rural areas are given priority.
    The Programs are based on polyvalent approach or multidimensional approach to adult education.
    Each program is need-based
    This approach takes into account contents, duration, methods and instructional arrangements.
    The methodology includes theory, practical and fieldwork experience.


The Objectives

    To improve the occupational skills and technical knowledge of trainees, raise their efficiency and increase productive ability.
    To provide academic and technical resource support to ZSS or any agency in taking up vocational and skill development programs for illiterates, neo-literates in both rural and urban areas.
    To serve as nodal Continuing Education centre and to co-ordinate, supervise and monitor 10-15 such centres.
    To organize training and orientation courses for Key Resource Persons, Master Trainers on designing, development and implementation of skill development programs under the scheme.
    To organize equivalency program through open learning systems.
    To widen the range of knowledge and understanding of the social, economic and political systems in order to create a critical awareness about the environment.
    To promote national Goals such as secularism, national integration, population and development, women’s equality, protection and conservation of environment etc.


Activity Areas


All activities of a JSS is limited to the District/area assigned by the sanctioning authority, i.e., Min. of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India.


Activities of JSS are organized under following categories:-

    Vocational Training Courses
Literacy-linked, need-based training courses of one to six months duration are organized for vocational skill up gradation of target groups. The vocational training courses are designed in a way to cater the local market demands, learning demand of prospective trainees, scope of employment, availability of resources and tapping income-earning potential from local art & craft, culture, tradition and vocations.
Activities are small duration (one to seven days) programmes basically related to orientation, workshops, ToT, Life Enrichment Education (LEE), celebration of important national/international ‘Days’, competitive programmes and activities on issues linked with day to day life such as hygiene & sanitation, reproductive health, AIDS, SHGs, Drug abuse, etc. for awareness generation and providing socio-economic inputs.



    Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) for Nalanda District (Bihar) was sanctioned to Shantidoot, a national level NGO, in Financial Year 2002 – 03.
JSS Nalanda started functioning in February 2003.
Headquarter of JSS Nalanda is located at Biharsharif, the District town of Nalanda.
It is registered, as per the norm, under Society Registration Act XXI, 1860; with I. G. Registration, Bihar (Reg. No. – 859/2003 – 04; Date of Reg. 01/11/2003).
    The BOM has been reconstituted in May 2010 vide letter No. F.5 – 5/2003-AE.8/NLM-3; Dt. 21/05/2010 from Deptt. of School Education & Literacy, Min. of HRD, Govt. of India.


    Major Achievements of JSS Nalanda till 2010 – 11


    From 2002 – 03 till date, JSS Nalanda has successfully completed training of over 18500 youths.
    More than 80% of training programmes have been organized in rural areas.
    Yearly coverage of illiterates, neo-literates and others with rudimentary education have been, on the average, 70%, 20% and 10% respectively.
    Nearly 10000 of trainees were females.  
    More than 90% of trainees belonged to SC/ST, BPL, Minority or extremely backward category.
    On an average, every year 20 – 25 courses have been organized. Training in need-based trades resulting in immediate employment/self-employment like cutting & tailoring, zari-work, embroidery, beautician, Jute articles making, candle & agarbatti making, vermi compost making, honey bee keeping, TV/DVD Player repairing, inverter-stabilizer & battery assembly, diesel pump-set repairing, etc. have been organized.
    The Sansthan has developed network with a no. of institutions/bodies, employers for engagement of trainees.
    A ‘Placement Cell’ headed by a Programme Officer has been formed which works for placement of trainees. The Cell has succeeded inkage/placing nearly 40% of successful trainees with jobs or self-employment.
    33 SHGs or similar groups have been formed, especially of women and poor trainees, for collectively starting / taking up business or income earning activity.


    Special effort of JSS Nalanda towards self-reliance of trainees

JSS Nalanda, under the guidance of its BOM, takes specific measures to fulfil the objectives of the scheme towards self-reliance of its targeted beneficiaries –

    During training trainees are given information and knowledge of market links.
    Business / project plans are developed for trainees to start their own business/services after training.
    List of employers is prepared beforehand. Liaison with employers is done for placement of trainees from training centre itself.
    Liaison with DIC, DRDA, NABARD, other banks / institutions is done for loans or material help to trainees in establishing their business/services for prospective entrepreneurs/trainees to start their own business/service.
    Self-help Groups are formed, especially of women and poor trainees, for collectively starting / taking up any business or income earning activity.
    LEE (Life Enrichment Education) is done for personality development of trainees and imparting knowledge of available govt. welfare/support policies, schemes and services. It helps them in starting their own business activity or take support for it.
    Follow up of trainees after training is done to see/help in starting their earning venture.
    All these lead to trainees becoming self reliant by starting earning activity, enhance their income or save a handsome amount for their family.


    Summary Achievement of 2010 – 11



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